Pressurized hot water extraction (PHWE) conditions (time, temperature, pressure) were optimized for the extraction of naringenin and other major flavonoids (dihydrokaempferol, naringin) from knotwood of aspen. Extracts were analysed by GC-FID, GC-MS, HPLC-UV and HPLC-MS. The results were compared with those obtained by Soxhlet, ultrasonic extraction and reflux in methanol. Flavonoids were most efficiently extracted with PHWE at 150 degrees C and 220 bar with 35 min extraction time. Soxhlet with methanol gave slightly higher recoveries, but an extraction time of 48 h was required. Naringenin concentration was highest in knotwood (1.15% dry weight) and much lower in the sapwood. PHWE proved to be cheap, fast and effective for the isolation of biofunctional flavonoids from aspen knotwood, producing higher recoveries than 24 h Soxhlet extraction, sonication or 24 h reflux. (c) 2007 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
- aspen (Populus tremula)