About 100 years ago, Zsigmondy and Bachmann invented a new method to induce phase inversion, the so-called vapor induced phase separation (VIPS). Since then many researchers have demonstrated this method in membrane fabrication. Here we present a review on membrane fabrication via VIPS to provide insights into membrane formation parameters in order to achieve desired properties for different applications. The key factors upon membrane preparation including solution parameters (i.e. polymer type and concentration, type of solvent, and additives) as well as operating parameters (i.e. exposure time, relative humidity, dissolution temperature, and vapor temperature) are comprehensively discussed. Furthermore, the design of a fouling-resistance membrane by the VIPS process has recently gained attention and is elaborated in details. The applications of the produced membranes via VIPS in water and wastewater treatment, gas separations, electrochemical applications (i.e. secondary batteries and supercapacitors) as well as in medical and biological applications are summarized and an outlook for future investigation is presented.
- Vapor induced phase separation
- Membrane fabrication