Interactions of phenantrene, anthracene, pyrene, chrysene, and benzo[a]pyrene (polyaromatic hydrocarbons) with model phospholipid membranes were probed using the Langmuir technique. The lipid monolayers were prepared using 1,2-dipalmitoyl-sn-glycero-3-phosphocholine, 1,2-dipalmitoyl-sn-glycero-3- phosphoethano-lamine, 1,2-dipalmitoyl-sn-glycero-3-phosphoglycerol, 1,2-dipalmitoyl-sn-glycero-3-phosphoserine, 1,2-myristoyl-sn-glycero-3- phosphoethanolamine, 1,2-dilauroyl-sn-glycero-3-phosphocholine, and cholesterol. Surface pressure and electrical surface potential were measured on mixed phospholipid/PAH monolayers spread on a pure water subphase. The morphology of the mixed monolayers was followed with Brewster angle microscopy. Polarization-modulation infrared reflection-absorption spectroscopy spectra obtained on DPPE/benzo[a]pyrene showed that the latter interacts with the carbonyl groups of the phospholipid. On the other hand, the activity of phospholipase A2 toward DLPC used as a probe to locate benzo[a]pyrene in the monolayers indicates that the polyaromatic hydrocarbons are not accessible to the enzyme. The results obtained show that all PAHs studied affect the properties of the pure lipid, albeit in different ways. The most notable effects, namely, film fluidization and morphology changes, were observed with benzo[a]pyrene. In contrast, the complexity of mixed lipid monolayers makes the effect of PAHs difficult to detect. It can be assumed that the differences observed between PAHs in monolayers correlate with their toxicity.