In situ pH within particle beds of bioactive glasses

    Research output: Contribution to journalArticleScientificpeer-review

    83 Citations (Scopus)


    The in vitro behavior of three bioactive glasses with seven particle size distributions was studied by measuring the in situ pH inside the particle beds for 48 h in simulated body fluid (SBF). After immersion, the surface of the particles was characterized with a field emission scanning electron microscope equipped with an energy-dispersive X-ray analyzer. In addition, the results were compared with the reactions of the same glasses formed as plates. A similar trend in pH as a function of immersion time was observed for all systems. However, the pH inside the particle beds was markedly higher than that in the bulk SBF of the plates. The pH decreased as power functions with increasing particle size, i.e. with decreasing surface area. The in vitro reactivity expressed as layer formation strongly depended on the particle size and glass composition. The average thickness of the total reaction layer decreased with the increase in sample surface area. Well-developed silica and calcium phosphate layers typically observed on glass plates could be detected only on some particles freely exposed to the solution. No distinct reaction layers were observed on the finest particles, possibly because the layers spread out on the large surface area. Differences in the properties of the bulk SBF and the solution inside the particle bed were negligible for particles larger than 800 mu m. The results enhance our understanding of the in vitro reactions of bioactive glasses in various product forms and sizes.
    Original languageUndefined/Unknown
    Pages (from-to)1498–1505
    Number of pages8
    JournalActa Biomaterialia
    Issue number5
    Publication statusPublished - 2008
    MoE publication typeA1 Journal article-refereed


    • in situ pH
    • in vitro test
    • particle size
    • reaction layers

    Cite this