Improvement of ethanol production from birch and spruce pretreated with 1-H-3-methylmorpholinium chloride

Marzieh Mohammadi, Marzieh Shafiei, Keikhosro Karimi, Amir Abdolmaleki, Jyri-Pekka Mikkola, Christer Larsson

Research output: Contribution to journalArticleScientificpeer-review

10 Citations (Scopus)


BackgroundPretreatment is the critically important step for the production of ethanol from lignocelluloses. In this study, hardwood birch (Betula pendula) and softwood spruce (Norway spruce) woods were pretreated with a newly synthesized morpholinium ionic liquid, 1-H-3-methylmorpholinium chloride ([HMMorph][Cl]), followed by enzymatic hydrolysis and fermentation to ethanol.Results[HMMorph][Cl] was synthesized using inexpensive raw materials, i.e., hydrochloric acid and N-methyl morpholine, following a simple process. The influence of pretreatment time (2, 3, 5, and 8 h) and temperature (120 and 140°C) in terms of hydrolysis efficiency was investigated. Glucose yields from enzymatic hydrolysis were improved from 13.7% to 45.7% and 12.9% to 51.8% after pretreatment of birch and spruce woods, respectively, under optimum pretreatment conditions (i.e., at 140°C for 3 h) as compared to those from pristine woods. Moreover, the yields of ethanol production from birch and spruce were increased to 34.8% and 44.2%, respectively, while the yields were negligible for untreated woods.ConclusionsThis study demonstrated the ability of [HMMorph][Cl] as an inexpensive agent to pretreat both softwood and hardwood.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)95–99
JournalElectronic Journal of Biotechnology
Publication statusPublished - 2019
MoE publication typeA1 Journal article-refereed


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