Impact of Torrefaction on the Chemical Structure of Birch Wood

Tooran Khazraie Shoulaifar, Nikolai De Martini, Stefan Willför, Andrey Pranovich, Annika Smeds, Virtanen TAP, SL Maunu, F Verhoeff, Kiel JHA, Mikko Hupa

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    Torrefaction is the thermal pretreatment of biomass at temperatures of 200-300 degrees C in an inert atmosphere with the objectives of improving resistance to biodegradation, reducing hydrophilicity, improving grindability and increasing energy density. In this work, we studied the effect of torrefaction temperature (240-280 degrees C) on the chemistry of birch wood. The samples were from a pilot plant at ECN, and in that way, they were representative of industrially produced samples. We have measured the concentration of hemicellulose and cellulose; changes in the extractives content and composition; and in the lignin structure. We used acid methanolysis and acid hydrolysis for hemicellulose and cellulose analysis, respectively; Klason lignin method, C-13 CP-MAS NMR, Dipolar Dephasing NMR, and Py-GC-MS analysis for lignin characterization; and acetone extraction, HPSEC, GC-FID, and GC-MS analysis for extractives characterization. The results provide a more complete picture of the chemical changes in wood by torrefaction.
    Original languageUndefined/Unknown
    Pages (from-to)3863–3872
    Number of pages10
    JournalEnergy and Fuels
    Issue number6
    Publication statusPublished - 2014
    MoE publication typeA1 Journal article-refereed

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