Nine cinchona alkaloid O-ethers together with cinchonidine and cinchonine were studied as chiral modifiers in the enantioselective hydrogenation of 1-phenyl-1,2-propanedione over Pt/Al(2)O3. The influence of the O-substituent on the reaction rate, selectivity and product distribution was investigated. Apparent rate constants for all hydrogenation steps were calculated using a first-order kinetic approach resulting in a good agreement between the experimentally recorded and predicted concentrations. The experimentally observed structure-selectivity effects indicate that the mechanisms of enantiodifferentiation over the catalyst modified by parent cinchona alkaloids and their ether derivatives differ from each other. Moreover, the modifier structure-selectivity dependence and the solvent effect were different for enantio- and diastereoselection in the 1-phenyl-1,2-propanedione and 1-hydroxyketone hydrogenations. Correlation between the modifier substituent bulkiness and diastereoselectivity of the 1-hydroxyketone hydrogenation was observed. Data on the inversion of enantioselectivity of 1-phenyl-1,2-propanedione hydrogenation, diastereoselectivity and the sense of kinetic resolution of the 1-hydroxyketones were presented. Due to the complexity of the reaction network, several competing mechanistic pathways may be present in a single reaction system. (C) 2008 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
- cinchona alkaloids
- heterogeneous catalysis
- hydrogenation kinetics
- inversion of diastereoselectivity
- inversion of enantioselectivity