Hole Transport in Low-Donor-Content Organic Solar Cells

D Spoltore, A Hofacker, J Benduhn, S Ullbrich, Mathias Nyman, O Zeika, S Schellhammer, YL Fan, I Ramirez, S Barlow, M Rieder, SR Marder, F Ortrnann, K Vandewal

Research output: Contribution to journalArticleScientificpeer-review

33 Citations (Scopus)


Organic solar cells with an electron donor diluted in a fullerene matrix have a reduced density of donor-fullerene contacts, resulting in decreased free-carrier recombination and increased open-circuit voltages. However, the low donor concentration prevents the formation of percolation pathways for holes. Notwithstanding, high (>75%) external quantum efficiencies can be reached, suggesting an effective hole-transport mechanism. Here, we perform a systematic study of the hole mobilities of 18 donors, diluted at similar to 6 mol % in C-60, with varying frontier energy level offsets and relaxation energies. We find that hole transport between isolated donor molecules occurs by long-range tunneling through several fullerene molecules, with the hole mobilities being correlated to the relaxation energy of the donor. The transport mechanism presented in this study is of general relevance to bulk heterojunction organic solar cells where mixed phases of fullerene containing a small fraction of a donor material or vice versa are present as well.
Original languageUndefined/Unknown
Pages (from-to)5496–5501
Number of pages11
JournalJournal of Physical Chemistry Letters
Publication statusPublished - 2018
MoE publication typeA1 Journal article-refereed

Cite this