HEXACO-PI-R-persoonallisuuskyselyn suomenkielisen version psykometriset ominaisuudet: komponenttirakenne ja reliabiliteetit

Translated title of the contribution: Psychometric qualities of the Finnish HEXACO-PI-R: Component structure and reliabilities

Alar Kaskikallio, Patrick Jern, Minja Westerlund

Research output: Contribution to journalArticleScientificpeer-review


HEXACO-PI-R measures variation in personality on six main personality dimensions (Honesty-Humility, Emotionality, Extraversion, Agreeableness, Conscientiousness, and Openness to Experience) and 25 subscales. The component structure of the inventory has been replicated in several previous studies using other language versions of the questionnaire. In the present study, we assessed the Finnish translation of the psychometric properties and component structure of the questionnaire using a large Finnish sample. The sample consisted of 5,724 participants (68.8% women; age mean 30.70 years, SD 8.27). Exploratory principal component analysis and confirmatory factor analysis were used to assess the questionnaire structure, with contradictory results. The former supported the six-component solution of the original HEXACO-PI-R. Here, the four subscales loaded on each main dimension as expected, with a few additional crossloadings appearing. The hundred items of the test also loaded on the subscales mainly as expected. A clear exception to this were the items in the Openness to Experience dimension: the items loaded on four components, but the components differed from the original model. Results from the confirmatory factor analysis did not give support to the six-factor model. The Finnish HEXACO-PI-R can be recommended for use in assessing personality with some caveats. For example, caution should be exercised when interpreting any subscale scores. In future studies, it would be recommended to, in particular, examine associations between the Finnish HEXACO-PI-R and other commonly utilized personality measures. Further research is also required on the structural validity of the questionnaire.
Translated title of the contributionPsychometric qualities of the Finnish HEXACO-PI-R: Component structure and reliabilities
Original languageFinnish
Issue number03
Publication statusPublished - 30 Jun 2021
MoE publication typeA1 Journal article-refereed


  • Personality
  • Personality Assessment
  • Trait theory
  • Principal component analysis


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