Functional cellulose microspheres for pharmaceutical applications

Jani Trygg

    Research output: Types of ThesisDoctoral ThesisCollection of Articles


    Dissolving cellulose is the first main step in preparing novel cellulosicmaterials. Since cellulosic fibres cannot be easily dissolved in water-based solvents, fibres were pretreated with ethanol-acid solution prior to the dissolution. Solubility and changes on the surface of the fibres were studied with microscopy and capillary viscometry. After the treatment, the cellulose fibres were soluble in alkaline urea-water solvent. The nature of this viscous solution was studied rheologically.Cellulose microspheres were prepared by extruding the alkaline cellulose solution through the needle into an acidic medium. By altering the temperature and acidity of the mediumit was possible to adjust the specific surface area and pore sizes of themicrospheres. A typical skin-core structure was found in all samples.Microspheres were oxidised in order to introduce anionic carboxylic acid groups (AGs). Anionic microspheres are more hydrophilic; their water-uptake increased 25 times after oxidation and they could swell almost to their original state (88%) after drying and shrinking. Swelling was studied in simulated physiological environments, corresponding to stomach acid and intestines (pH 1.2-7.4).Oxidised microspheres were used as a drug carriers. They demonstrated a highmass uniformity, which would enable their use for personalised dosing among different patients, including children. The drug was solidified in microspheres in amorphous form. This enhanced solubility and could be used for more challenging drugs with poor solubility. The pores of themicrospheres also remained open after the drug was loaded and they were dried. Regardless of the swelling, the drug was released at a constant rate in all environments.
    Original languageUndefined/Unknown
    Print ISBNs978-952-12-3168-1
    Publication statusPublished - 2015
    MoE publication typeG5 Doctoral dissertation (article)


    • Cellulose
    • Cellulose beads
    • Biomass pretreatment
    • pre-treatment
    • Viscosity
    • intrinsic viscosity
    • dissolution
    • coagulation
    • regeneration
    • Microsphere
    • Pore surface area
    • Particles surface functionalisation
    • chemical oxidation
    • drug delivery

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