Fever has a major impact on immune responses by modulating survival, proliferation, and endurance of lymphocytes. Lymphocyte persistence in turn is determined by the equilibrium between death and survival-promoting factors that regulate death receptor signaling in these cells. A potential integrator of death receptor signaling is the caspase-8 inhibitor c-FLIP, the expression of which is dynamically regulated, either rapidly induced or down-regulated. In this study, we show in activated primary human T lymphocytes that hyperthermia corresponding to fever triggered down-regulation of both c-FLIP-splicing variants, c-FLIPshort (c-FLIP(S)) and c-FLIPlong, with consequent sensitization to apoptosis mediated by CD95 (Fas/APO-1). The c-FLIP down-regulation and subsequent sensitization was specific for hyperthermic stress. Additionally, we show that the hyperthermia-mediated down-regulation was due to increased ubiquitination and proteasomal degradation of c-FLIP(S), the stability of which we have shown to be regulated by its C-terminal splicing tail. Furthermore, the induced sensitivity to CD95 ligation was independent of heat shock protein 70, as thermotolerant cells, expressing substantially elevated levels of heat shock protein 70, were not rescued from the effect of hyperthermia-mediated c-FLIP down-regulation. Our findings indicate that fever significantly influences the rate of lymphocyte elimination through depletion of c-FLIP(S). Such a general regulatory mechanism for lymphocyte removal has broad ramifications for fever-mediated regulation of immune responses.