Experimental investigation and thermodynamic re-assessment of the ternary copper-nickel-lead system

Fiseha Tesfaye, Iina Vaajamo, Joseph Hamuyuni, Daniel Lindberg, Pekka Taskinen, Leena Hupa

Research output: Contribution to journalArticleScientificpeer-review

2 Citations (Scopus)
299 Downloads (Pure)


Due to their high corrosion resistance and thermal stability, Cu-Ni-alloys have essential role in many materialsengineering applications. Lead is an alloying element in these alloys although it may also be considered as animpurity in certain cases. In copper rich alloys, lead tends to diffuse into the grain boundaries and weaken thehot-working properties. In addition to alloys design, accurate knowledge of phase relations and solubilities in theternary Cu-Ni-Pb system has important role in improving the copper and nickel smelting and refining processes.In the present work, an isothermal equilibration technique was used to measure the mutual solubilities ofliquid lead and solid CuNi foil in the temperature range 1280–1530 K. The samples were equilibrated and anInductively Coupled Plasma Atomic Emission Spectrometer (ICP-AES) and an Electron Probe Micro Analyzer(EPMA) were used to quantify the chemical composition of the phases. Selected solubility data obtained in thiswork were combined with the literature data to obtain a thermodynamic description of the Cu-Ni-Pb ternaryliquid and fcc solid solution phases by applying the CALPHAD method. The ternary assessment agrees well withthe experimental observations in this work.

Original languageUndefined/Unknown
Pages (from-to)148–156
Publication statusPublished - 2018
MoE publication typeA1 Journal article-refereed


  • Lead
  • copper
  • solubility
  • High-temperature phases
  • Phase diagram
  • alloys
  • nickel

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