Experimental design of stencil-printed high-performance organic electrochemical transistors

Amir Mohammad Ghafari, Michele Catacchio, Emil Rosqvist, Axel Luukkonen, Anni Eklund, Kim Björkström, Paolo Bollella, Luisa Torsi, Eleonora Macchia*, Ronald Österbacka*

*Corresponding author for this work

Research output: Contribution to journalArticleScientificpeer-review

1 Citation (Scopus)
15 Downloads (Pure)

Abstract

Organic electrochemical transistors (OECTs) are widely employed in several bioelectronic applications such as biosensors, logic circuits, and neuromorphic engineering, providing a seamless link between the realm of biology and electronics. More specifically, OECTs are endowed with remarkable signal amplification, the ability to operate in an aqueous environment, and the effective transduction of ionic to electrical signals. One main limiting factor preventing OECTs’ wide use is the need for microfabrication processes, typically requiring specialized equipment. From this perspective, a robust and cost-effective production protocol to achieve high-performing OECT would be desirable. Herein, a straightforward stencil-printed OECT fabrication procedure is proposed, where the electrical performance can be controlled by adjusting the electronic channel fabrication conditions. An experimental design approach is undertaken to optimize OECT figures of merit by varying key parameters such as the annealing temperature and time, as well as the transistor active channel length. The resulting OECT devices, fabricated through a high-yield, cost-effective, and fast stencil printing technique, feature large transconductance values at low operating voltages. The experimental design allowed for minimizing the threshold voltage (VT = 260 mV) while keeping a high on/off ratio (7 × 103). A signal-to-noise ratio as high as 40 dB was obtained, which is among the highest for OECTs, operating in an aqueous electrolyte operated in a DC mode. An atomic force microscopy (AFM) characterization has been undertaken to analyze the channel morphology in the OECTs, correlating the annealing conditions with the charge transport properties.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)6718-6729
Number of pages12
JournalMaterials Advances
Volume4
Issue number24
DOIs
Publication statusPublished - 4 Dec 2023
MoE publication typeA1 Journal article-refereed

Keywords

  • Organic electronics
  • Organic electrochemical transistor
  • Bioelectronics

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