Abstract Adipose stem cell-derived exosomes have great potential in accelerating cutaneous wound healing by optimizing fibroblast activities. Recent studies have demonstrated that exosomes play an active role in the transport of functional cytoskeletal proteins such as vimentin. Previously we showed that vimentin serves as a coordinator of the healing process. Therefore, we hypothesized that vimentin incorporated into the exosomes may contribute to mediate fibroblast activities in wound healing. Our results revealed that exosomal vimentin from adipocyte progenitor cells acts as a promoter of fibroblast proliferation, migration, and ECM secretion. Furthermore, our in vitro and in vivo experiments provide evidence that exosomal vimentin shortens the healing time and reduces scar formation. These findings suggest the reciprocal roles of exosomes and vimentin in accelerating wound healing. Exosomes can serve as an efficient transportation system to deliver and internalize vimentin into target cells, while vimentin could have an impact on exosome transportation, internalization, and cell communication.