Iron is probably the single most important metal for the world’s industrial economy. In nature iron is mostly available in the form of oxides (mainly hematite, Fe2O3, and magnetite, Fe3O4) or hydroxides (Fe(OH)x). Ironmaking refers to a number of processes, which are implemented for extracting metallic iron from these oxides, predominantly using a reductant like carbon monoxide. In order to cater to the various applications of this metal, the metallic iron is often alloyed with other elements, which can improve properties specific for an application. These alloys are known as steel and the process is called “steelmaking.” Typically, steel is an iron-carbon alloy of variable composition, where other alloying elements are added to obtain various useful properties. For example, to improve the corrosion resistance, chromium is added to iron and the product is commercially available as stainless steel. World average steel use per capita has been steadily increasing. In the last decade it has increased from 150 kg in 2001 to 225 kg in 2013 .
|Title of host publication||Evolutionary computation : techniques and applications|
|Editors||Ashish M. Gujarathi, B. V. Babu|
|Publication status||Published - 2017|
|MoE publication type||A3 Part of a book or another research book|