Environmentally friendly transistors and circuits on paper

Fredrik Pettersson, Tommi Mattias Remonen, David Adekanye, Yanxi Zhang, Carl-Eric Wilen, Ronald Österbacka

Research output: Contribution to journalArticleScientificpeer-review

15 Citations (Scopus)


We created environmentally friendly low-voltage, ion-modulated transistors (IMTs) that can be fabricated successfully on a paper substrate. A range of ionic liquids (ILs) based on choline chloride (ChoCl) were used as the electrolytic layer in the IMTs. Different organic compounds were mixed with ChoCl to create solution-processable deep eutectic mixtures that are liquid or semiliquid at room temperature. In the final, solid version of the IMT, the ILs are also solidified by using a commercial binder to create printable transistor structures The semiconductor layer in the IMT is also substituted with a blend of the original semiconductor and a biodegradable polymer insulator. This reduces the amount of expensive and potentially harmful semiconductor used, and it also provides increased transistor performance, especially increasing the device switching speed. These environmentally friendly IMTs are then used to create ring oscillators, logic gates, and memories on paper.
Original languageUndefined/Unknown
Pages (from-to)1286–1294
Issue number6
Publication statusPublished - 2015
MoE publication typeA1 Journal article-refereed


  • ion modulated
  • Paper electronics
  • ionic liquids
  • sustainable chemistry
  • logic circuits

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