In this paper we present a general framework for estimating the energy consumption of an embedded Java virtual machine (JVM). We have designed a number of experiments to find the constant overhead and establish an energy consumption cost for individual Java opcodes for two JVMs. The results show that there is a basic constant overhead for every Java program, and that a subset of Java opcodes have an almost constant energy cost. We also show that memory access is a crucial energy consumption component. (c) 2006 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
- embedded Java virtual machine
- energy consumption
- Java opcode