The operation of four - stroke diesel engines in either propulsion or generator mode application has a strong influence on gaseous, smoke (soot) and particulates emissions. Tests were made with a supercharged after-cooled large-scale diesel engine (mean speed ∼ 500 rpm, power per cylinder ∼ 1 MW) burning mainly heavy fuel oil. Gaseous emissions (NOx, CO, HC) were measured according to the IMO technical code, smoke (soot) emissions were determined optically and particulate matter (PM) was measured using a gravimetric impactor for five size fractions. Impact on gaseous emissions, smoke (soot) and PM was found when analysing the effects of the engine operating mode, fuel nozzle, start of injection (SOI), and load (speed). Results show that the exhaust emission was also highly dependent on the engine turbocharger system, especially the by-pass control, but was not affected by waste gate control. The gaseous and soot emissions were less for the generator mode in the total load region, decreasing with the load. PM emissions were found to decrease with the load for the propulsion mode, while showing an increase with the load for the generator mode.