Effect of Hybrid Type and Harvesting Season on Phytochemistry and Antibacterial Activity of Extracted Metabolites from Salix Bark

Jinze Dou*, Polina Ilina, Jarl Hemming, Kiia Malinen, Heidi Mäkkylä, Natália Oliveira de Farias, Päivi Tammela, Gisela de Aragão Umbuzeiro, Riikka Räisänen, Tapani Vuorinen

*Corresponding author for this work

Research output: Contribution to journalArticleScientificpeer-review

6 Citations (Scopus)
20 Downloads (Pure)


Hundreds of different fast-growing Salix hybrids have been developed mainly for energy crops. In this paper, we studied water extracts from the bark of 15 willow hybrids and species as potential antimicrobial additives. Treatment of ground bark in water under mild conditions extracted 12-25% of the dry material. Preparative high-performance liquid chromatography is proven here as a fast and highly efficient tool in the small-scale recovery of raffinose from Salix bark crude extracts for structural elucidation. Less than half of the dissolved material was assigned by chromatographic (gas chromatography and liquid chromatography) and spectroscopic (mass spectrometry and nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy) techniques for low-molecular-weight compounds, including mono- and oligosaccharides (sucrose, raffinose, and stachyose) and aromatic phytochemicals (triandrin, catechin, salicin, and picein). The composition of the extracts varied greatly depending on the hybrid or species and the harvesting season. This information generated new scientific knowledge on the variation in the content and composition of the extracts between Salix hybrids and harvesting season depending on the desired molecule. The extracts showed high antibacterial activity on Staphylococcus aureus with a minimal inhibitory concentration (MIC) of 0.6-0.8 mg/mL; however, no inhibition was observed against Escherichia coli, Enterococcus faecalis, and Salmonella typhimurium. MIC of triandrin (i.e., 1.25 mg/mL) is reported for the first time. Although antibacterial triandrin and (+)-catechin were present in extracts, clear correlation between the antibacterial effect and the chemical composition was not established, which indicates that antibacterial activity of the extracts mainly originates from some not yet elucidated substances. Aquatic toxicity and mutagenicity assessments showed the safe usage of Salix water extracts as possible antibacterial additives.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)2948-2956
Number of pages9
JournalJournal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry
Issue number9
Publication statusPublished - 9 Mar 2022
MoE publication typeA1 Journal article-refereed


  • antimicrobial activity
  • mutagenicity
  • raffinose
  • toxicity
  • triandrin
  • water extract
  • willow bark


Dive into the research topics of 'Effect of Hybrid Type and Harvesting Season on Phytochemistry and Antibacterial Activity of Extracted Metabolites from Salix Bark'. Together they form a unique fingerprint.

Cite this