A method to determine the doping induced charge carrier profiles in lightly and moderately doped organic semiconductor thin films is presented. The theory of the method of Charge Extraction by a Linearly Increasing Voltage technique in the doping-induced capacitive regime (doping-CELIV) is extended to the case with non-uniform doping profiles and the analytical description is verified with drift-diffusion simulations. The method is demonstrated experimentally on evaporated organic smallmolecule thin films with a controlled doping profile, and solution-processed thin films where the nonuniform doping profile is unintentional, probably induced during the deposition process, and a priori unknown. Furthermore, the method offers a possibility of directly probing charge-density distributions at interfaces between highly doped and lightly doped or undoped layers.
- Organic solar cells
- Extraction current transients