Metabolic responses to temperature changes are crucial for maintaining the energy balance of an individual under seasonal temperature fluctuations. To understand how such responses differ in recently isolated populations (<11,000 years), we studied four Baltic populations of the nine-spined stickleback (Pungitius pungitius L.) from coastal locations (seasonal temperature range, 0Çô29-¦C) and from colder, more thermally stable spring-fed ponds (1Çô19-¦C). Salinity and predation pressure also differed between these locations. We acclimatized wild-caught fish to 6, 11, and 19-¦C in common garden conditions for 4Çô6 months and determined their aerobic scope and hepatosomatic index (HSI). The freshwater fish from the colder (2Çô14-¦C), predator-free pond population exhibited complete temperature compensation for their aerobic scope, whereas the coastal populations underwent metabolic rate reduction during the cold treatment. Coastal populations had higher HSI than the colder pond population at all temperatures, with cold acclimation accentuating this effect. The metabolic rates and HSI for freshwater fish from the pond with higher predation pressure were more similar to those of the coastal ones. Our results suggest that ontogenic effects and/or genetic differentiation are responsible for differential energy storage and metabolic responses between these populations. This work demonstrates the metabolic versatility of the nine-spined stickleback and the pertinence of an energetic framework to better understand potential local adaptations. It also demonstrates that instead of using a single acclimation temperature thermal reaction norms should be compared when studying individuals originating from different thermal environments in a common garden setting.
|Journal||Journal of Experimental Zoology Part A: Ecological Genetics and Physiology|
|Publication status||Published - 2014|
|MoE publication type||A1 Journal article-refereed|