Determination of Lead(II) in Groundwater Using Solid-State Lead(II) Selective Electrodes by Tuned Galvanostatic Polarization

Grzegorz Lisak, Filip Ciepiela, Johan Bobacka, Tomasz Sokalski, Leo Harju, Andrzej Lewenstam

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    32 Citations (Scopus)


    A method for direct potentiometric determination of lead(II) ion in native, untreated environmental samples of groundwater is reported. In a filtered sample, when applying a solid-state (PbS/Ag2S) ion-selective electrode in tuned galvanostatic polarization (TGP) mode, a concentration of 17.2 +/- 1.6 mu g?dm-3 was measured. The potentiometric results are compared with those obtained using inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-MS), 18.0 +/- 0.4 mu g?dm-3 and differential pulse anodic stripping voltammetry (DPASV), 24.3 +/- 0.5 mu g?dm-3. Owing to limitations of other methods, the analysis of Pb2+ in the untreated and non-filtered samples was only possible with the ion-selective electrode solid-state electrode. The described method can be an attractive alternative to existing methods of Pb2+ determination that are used to monitor groundwater pollution.
    Original languageUndefined/Unknown
    Pages (from-to)123–131
    Number of pages9
    Issue number1
    Publication statusPublished - 2013
    MoE publication typeA1 Journal article-refereed


    • All-solid-state ion-selective electrode
    • Environmental analysis
    • Lead(II) analysis
    • Low detection limit
    • Potentiometry

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