A method for direct potentiometric determination of lead(II) ion in native, untreated environmental samples of groundwater is reported. In a filtered sample, when applying a solid-state (PbS/Ag2S) ion-selective electrode in tuned galvanostatic polarization (TGP) mode, a concentration of 17.2 +/- 1.6 mu g?dm-3 was measured. The potentiometric results are compared with those obtained using inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-MS), 18.0 +/- 0.4 mu g?dm-3 and differential pulse anodic stripping voltammetry (DPASV), 24.3 +/- 0.5 mu g?dm-3. Owing to limitations of other methods, the analysis of Pb2+ in the untreated and non-filtered samples was only possible with the ion-selective electrode solid-state electrode. The described method can be an attractive alternative to existing methods of Pb2+ determination that are used to monitor groundwater pollution.
- All-solid-state ion-selective electrode
- Environmental analysis
- Lead(II) analysis
- Low detection limit