Design and Utilization of Nitrogen Containing Flame Retardants Based on N-Alkoxyamines, Azoalkanes and Related Compounds

Carl-Eric Wilen, Rudolf Pfaendner

    Research output: Chapter in Book/Conference proceedingChapterScientificpeer-review

    23 Citations (Scopus)


    The desire to reduce the load on the ecosystem has in recent years driven flame retardant research toward halogen-free systems or at least toward combinations that permit a substantial reduction in the percentage of halogenated substances. This review provides a comprehensive and chronological insight into some novel developments within the family of nitrogen-based flame retardants and their structure–property relationships. It focuses on a series of different N-alkoxy hindered amines (NOR), azoalkanes (AZO) of the general formula R′–NN–R, and related compounds such as azoxy, hydrazone, azine, triazene, tetrapotassium azo diphosphonate (INAZO), and bis(1-alkoxy-2,2,6,6-tetramethylpiperidyl)-4-diazene compounds. These nitrogen-containing flame retardants mainly exhibit self-extinguishing properties for polypropylene and polyethylene films or even in some cases for polypropylene moldings, polyurethane adhesives, and polystyrene. In addition, their performance in combination with various conventional flame retardant classes is discussed. Contrary to other nitrogen-containing flame retardants, such as melamines, the presented nitrogen-based flame retardants are effective at very low additive levels (<1 wt%), they do not weaken the mechanical or physical properties of the host polymer, and after structural optimization, they are likely to meet the criteria for sustainable production and development.
    Original languageUndefined/Unknown
    Title of host publicationPolymer Green Flame Retardants
    EditorsConstantine D. Papaspyrides, Pantelis Kiliaris
    ISBN (Print)978-0-444-53808-6
    Publication statusPublished - 2014
    MoE publication typeA3 Part of a book or another research book


    • Alkoxyamines
    • Azoalkanes
    • Nitrogen compounds

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