Deregulation of ocular nucleotide homeostasis in patients with diabetic retinopathy

S Loukovaara, Jouko Sandholm, K Aalto, J Liukkonen, S Jalkanen, GG Yegutkin

Research output: Contribution to journalArticleScientificpeer-review

12 Citations (Scopus)

Abstract

Clear signaling roles for ATP and adenosine have been established in all tissues, including the eye. The magnitude of signaling responses is governed by networks of enzymes; however, little is known about the regulatory mechanisms of purinergic signaling in the eye. By employing thin-layer chromatographic assays with 3H-labeled substrates, this study aimed to evaluate the role of nucleotide homeostasis in the pathogenesis of vitreoretinal diseases in humans. We have identified soluble enzymes ecto-5'-nucleotidase/CD73, adenylate kinase-1, and nucleoside diphosphate kinase in the vitreous fluid that control active cycling between proinflammatory ATP and anti-inflammatory adenosine. Strikingly, patients with proliferative form of diabetic retinopathy (DR) had higher adenylate kinase activity and ATP concentration, when compared to non-proliferative DR eyes and non-diabetic controls operated for rhegmatogenous retinal detachment, macular hole, and pucker. The non-parametric correlation analysis revealed positive correlations between intravitreal adenylate kinase and concentrations of ATP, ADP, and other angiogenic (angiopoietins-1 and -2), profibrotic (transforming growth factor-similar to 1), and proteolytic (matrix metalloproteinase-9) factors but not erythropoietin and VEGF. Immunohistochemical staining of postmortem human retina additionally revealed selective expression of ecto-5'-nucleotidase/ CD73 on the rod-and-cone-containing photoreceptor cells. Collectively, these findings provide novel insights into the regulatory mechanisms that influence purinergic signaling in diseased eye and open up new possibilities in the development of enzyme-targeted therapeutic approaches for prevention and treatment of DR.
Original languageUndefined/Unknown
Pages (from-to)193–204
Number of pages12
JournalJournal of Molecular Medicine
Volume95
Issue number2
DOIs
Publication statusPublished - 2017
MoE publication typeA1 Journal article-refereed

Keywords

  • Vitreous fluid
  • ADP
  • Adenylate kinase-1
  • ATP
  • Ecto-5 '-nucleotidase/CD73

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