Electron displacements may be considered as a general measure of semiconductor activity as well as of dipolar,acid-base and charge interactions. Electron transfers during reduction and oxidation reactions between dissolvedcations and anions correspond to an extreme Lewis acid-base electron displacement. Brϕnsted proton release(protolysis) represents an extremely weakened hydrogen bond. The most common electrostatic (Born, PCM) andchemical (pKa matching) models for electron and proton exchange between dissolved species are reviewed usingaluminium species as examples. Dissolution of ions from solids (salts) may be considered as a reversed precipitationreaction. For partly covalent solids dissociation is dependent on electron or vacancy (hole) transfers tothe solid which connects oxidation and reduction reactions to electron displacements in semiconductors. Theelectron exchange is characterized by Femi energy of semiconductors and of electrolytes. The standard reductionpotential may thus be converted to Fermi energy of connected electrochemical cells. In disconnected particlesuspensions (sols) the electron activity is a more appropriate parameter which may be converted both tostandard reduction potential of ions and to Fermi energy of semiconductors. Dissolution of potential determiningcations and anions and hydrolysis of surface sites determines the charging (electron transfer to/from surface) ofsolids. Both electrostatic (MUSIC) and chemical equilibrium constant models are available for Brϕnsted equilibriumof surface hydroxyls. Point of zero charge is a result of positive and negative charge matching and itrepresents the optimal condition for condensation of polynuclear species by olation and oxolation. The capabilityof partial charge (PCM) model to predict condensation is evaluated. Acidity (pH), composition and temperaturedependence of aluminium species is illustrated by solubility limits of contributing species and by phase diagrams.Influence of ions on macroscopic suspension properties, such as wetting and electrophoretic mobility isevaluated with reference to point of zero charge and to isoelectric point. Restrictions to the use of zeta-potentialsare related to the surface potential and particle size – Debye length ratios. Macroscopic settling (particle precipitation)and viscosity of suspensions (sols) are discussed with reference to Deryagin-Landau-Verwey-Overbeek(DLVO) model. The primary dependence on counterion valence is evaluated according to Schulz-Hardy approach.The secondary dependence on counterion hydration (Hofmeister or lyotropic effect) and ion association(Debye-Hückel limiting model) are discussed.
- redox processes