Composite films of nanofibrillated cellulose and O-acetyl galactoglucomannan (GGM) coated with succinic esters of GGM showing potential as barrier material in food packaging

Victor Kisonen, Kasinee Prakobna, Chunlin Xu, Arto Salminen, Kirsi S. Mikkonen, Dimitar Valtakari, Patrik Christoffer Eklund, Jukka Seppälä, Maija Tenkanen, Stefan Willför

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47 Citations (Scopus)


Nanofibrillated cellulose (NFC)-Norway spruce O-acetyl-galactoglucomannan (GGM) composite films were coated either with a novel succinic ester of GGM or with native GGM. NFC films were made for reference. The succinic ester of GGM was synthesised at low (GGM-Su1) and high (GGM-Su2) degree of substitution to obtain different level of water repellence. GGM and its succinic esters had good affinity with NFC substrate. This made it possible to implement the barrier functionality on the NFC network with the adequate mechanical properties. The coatings further enhanced the already excellent oxygen permeability properties, achieving 0.1 [(cm(3) A mu m)(m(2) kPa d)] as the lowest value with the NFC-GGM film double-coated with GGM-Su2. The films demonstrated pronounced stiffness by adding GGM to the NFC, as well as coating of GGM-Su2 on the NFC-GGM films at 0-90 % relative humidity. The films turned out to be impenetrable with grease even at high temperatures. NFC-GGM film with GGM-Su2 coating exhibited hydrophobic characteristics according to the water contact angle measurements. It was shown that adding 5.5 wt% of GGM to a NFC film and further 5.4 wt% of coating of GGM-Su or GGM on the film may highly enhance the feasibility of the biocomposites to be used for food packaging to replace typical oil-based non-biodegradable plastics currently used.
Original languageUndefined/Unknown
Pages (from-to)3189–3199
Number of pages11
JournalJournal of Materials Science
Issue number8
Publication statusPublished - 2015
MoE publication typeA1 Journal article-refereed

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