Comparison of Different Amino-Functionalization Procedures on a Selection of Metal Oxide Microparticles: Degree of Modification and Hydrolytic Stability

Motolani Sakeye, Jan-Henrik Smått

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    Amino-modified metal oxide materials are essential in a wide range of applications, including chromatography, ion adsorption, and as biomaterials. The aim of this study is to compare different functionalization techniques on a selection of metal oxides (SiO(2), TiO(2), ZrO(2), and SnO(2)) in order to determine which combination has the optimal properties for a certain application. We have used the nanocasting approach to synthesize micrometer-sized TiO(2), ZrO(2), and SnO(2) particles, which have similar morphologies and porosities as the starting mesoporous SiO(2) microparticles (Lichroprep Si 60). These metal oxides were subsequently functionalized by four different approaches, (a) covalent bonding of 3-aminopropyltriethoxysilane (APTES), (b) adsorption of 2-aminoethyl dihydrogen phosphate (AEDP), (c) surface polymerization of aziridine (AZ), and (d) electrostatic interaction of poly(ethylenimine) (PEI), to produce a high surface coverage of amino groups on their surfaces. Scanning electron microscopy, nitrogen physisorption, and X-ray diffraction were used to characterize the unmodified metal oxide particles, while thermogravimetric analysis, ninhydrin adsorption, and ζ potential titrations were applied to gain insight into the successfulness of the various surface modifications. Finally, the hydrolytic stability at pH 2 and 10 was investigated by ζ potential measurements. Unfortunately, the AEDP approach was not able to produce efficient amino-modification on any of the tested metal oxide surfaces. On the other hand, modifications with APTES, aziridine, and PEI appeared to give fairly stable amino-functionalizations at high pH values for all metal oxides, while these modifications were easily detached at pH 2, with the exception of SnO(2), where the AZ and PEI samples were stable up to 40 h. The results are expected to give valuable insights into the possibility of replacing amino-modified silica with more hydrolytically stable metal oxides in various application fields, for example, chromatography and drug delivery.
    Original languageUndefined/Unknown
    Pages (from-to)16941–50
    Issue number49
    Publication statusPublished - 2012
    MoE publication typeA1 Journal article-refereed

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