High-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) was applied in the analysis of nodularin (NODLN), a potent, bioaccumulable hepatotoxin. The behaviour of NODLN in biological matrices and possibility to analyse biota samples for NODLN content was examined using a conventional HPLC/diode array detector method that uses C18 solid-phase cartridge clean up. Tissues of European flounder, blue mussel (spiked and naturally contaminated), clam (exposed to NODLN in an aquarium] and mouse (subjected to i. p. administration of NODLN) were analysed. UV detection was 5 times more sensitive than electrochemical detection. Recovery of NODLN from spiked tissues was 59% for mussel, 53% for flounder, and 44 - 75% for mouse tissues. NODLN was detected in clams exposed with NODLN, but not in naturally contaminated mussels where NODLN conjugation occurs. Through the use of spectral processing, free NODLN was unambiguously identified from tissue samples. The HPLC method showed limits of quantification between 90 and 150 μg NODLN kg-1 dw. The method proved applicable for routine tissue analysis and can be used in the monitoring of acutely toxic NODLN levels.
- Clams, mussels and fish
- Column liquid chromatography