Chemical composition and content of lipophilic seed extractives of some Abies and Picea species

Anna Wajs-Bonikowska, Annika Smeds, Stefan Willför

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4 Citations (Scopus)


The chemical content and composition of the lipophilic extracts from seeds of some fir species: Abies alba, A. cephalonica, A. concolor, and A. koreana, as well as of a few spruce species: Picea abies, P. orientalis, and P. pungens, were examined. The amount of lipophilic extractives is diverse among the tree species and it varies from 9.8% to 41% of seeds. The chemical characterization showed significant differences, not only in the content, but also in the composition of extractives. However, most of the identified compounds like resin alcohols, -aldehydes, and -acids, as well as fatty acids, were detected in the seed extracts of all the examined tree species. The dominating identified compound group was esterified fatty acids (2.5 - 55.4% w/w of dry extract), occurring mainly as tri-and diglycerides, as well as free acids. The main representatives of this group were linoleic and oleic acids. The resin acids, among which the main were abietic, neoabietic, dehydroabietic, and palustric acids, were also detected at high levels, from 1.8% to 16.9% of the dry seed extracts. Phytosterols, tocopherols, resin hydrocarbons, and resin esters, as well as fatty alcohols were also identified. The coniferous tree seeds, as a renewable natural material, could represent a prospective raw material for producing valuable chemicals.
Original languageUndefined/Unknown
Pages (from-to)1194–1201
Number of pages8
JournalChemistry and Biodiversity
Issue number9
Publication statusPublished - 2016
MoE publication typeA1 Journal article-refereed


  • Abies
  • Fatty acids
  • Picea
  • Seeds
  • Sterols
  • Resin acids
  • Lipophilic extractives
  • Tocopherols

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