Change in Pupils’ and Students’ Attitudes toward School as a Function of Age – A Finnish Perspective

Jari Metsämuuronen, Renata Svedlin, Jovan Ilic

Research output: Contribution to journalReview Article or Literature Reviewpeer-review


The article describes changes in pupil and student contentment as a function of age in the general education system. School satisfaction was measured with a 216-item test with 15 different versions simultaneously in all grades of primary and lower secondary education and in two grades in upper secondary general education. IRT modeling with matrix sampling was used to equate the versions for all the grades. Pupil/student contentment decreased significantly after the 2nd grade with the intensity of the satisfaction declining steadily until the 8th grade. From 9th grade on, contentment recovered as it began to increase once again, albeit moderately. It then stayed constant until the 2nd grade in high school. Pupil/studentcontentment decreased especially in the areas of assessing teachers, classroom activities, and lessons; there was a smaller reduction in the areas of school atmosphere and physical environment. Over the years, the girls were more satisfied with school than were the boys. Pupils with a higher achievement level were more satisfied than those with a low level of achievement.

Original languageUndefined/Unknown
Pages (from-to)134–151
JournalJournal of Educational and Developmental Psychology
Issue number2
Publication statusPublished - 2012
MoE publication typeA2 Review article in a scientific journal


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