Hydroisomerization of long chain paraffins for the production of branched alkanes has recently been intensively studied due to a large availability of these compounds. The most interesting research topics have been the development of novel bifunctional catalysts to maximize the yield of isomers and to suppress the cracking reactions. Since both of these reactions are catalyzed by Brønsted acid sites, the optimum catalyst exhibits equal amounts of metal and acid sites, and it facilitates rapid mass transfer. Thus, several hierarchical and nano-shaped zeolites have been developed, in addition to composite catalysts containing both micro- and mesoporous phases. In addition to catalyst development, the effect of the reactant structure, optimal reaction conditions, catalyst stability and comparison of batch vs continuous operations have been made.