Carboxymethylated spruce galactoglucomannans: preparation, characterisation, dispersion stability, water-in-oil emulsion stability, and sorption on cellulose surface

Chunlin Xu, Christer Eckerman, Annika Smeds, Markku Reunanen, Patrik Christoffer Eklund, Rainer Sjöholm, Stefan Willför

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    39 Citations (Scopus)


    In this study, carboxymethylated GGMs (CM-GGMs) were prepared and characterised by GC-MS, (1)H and (13)C NMR and FTIR spectroscopy, and SEC-MALLS. The thermal stability of the products was investigated by DSC-TGA. The accessibility of different C-positions in mannose and glucose was investigated. The emulsion stability of CM-GGMs in resin dispersion was studied and it was shown that CM-GGMs can stabilise the resin dispersion also in presence of CaCl(2). The possibility of using CM-GGMs as emulsifiers in water-in-oil emulsions was assessed. A CM-GGM with a DS value of 0.25 at a concentration higher than 3% performed the best. Finally, the study of sorption of CM-GGM onto cellulose surface exhibited a decrease in binding ability with an increase in the degree of substitution (DS).
    Original languageUndefined/Unknown
    Pages (from-to)167–178
    Number of pages12
    JournalNordic Pulp and Paper Research Journal
    Issue number2
    Publication statusPublished - 2011
    MoE publication typeA1 Journal article-refereed


    • Carboxymethylation
    • Cellulose surface
    • Emulsion stability
    • Sorption
    • Spruce
    • Structural features

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