Carbonation of calcium-containing mineral and industrial by-products

Ron Zevenhoven*, Anders Wiklund, Johan Fagerlund, Sanni Eloneva, Ben In t. Veen, Hans Geerlings, Gert Van Mossel, Harold Boerrigter

*Corresponding author for this work

Research output: Contribution to journalArticleScientificpeer-review

18 Citations (Scopus)


The use of carbon dioxide (CO2) and calcium-containing by-products from industrial activities is receiving increasing interest as a route to valuable carbonate materials while reducing CO2 emissions and saving natural resources. In this work, wet-chemical experimental data was assessed, which involved the carbonation of three types of materials in aqueous solutions, namely, 1) wollastonite, a calcium silicate mineral, 2) steelmaking slag, a by-product of steel production, and 3) paper bottom ash (PBA) from waste paper incineration. Aims were to achieve either a high carbonation degree and/or a pure carbonate product with potential commercial value. Producing a pure precipitated calcium carbonate (PCC) material that may find use in paper industry products puts strong requirements on purity and brightness. The parameters investigated were particle size, CO2 pressure, temperature, solid/liquid ratio, and the use of additives that affect the solubilities of CO2 and/or calcium carbonate. Temperatures and pressures were varied up to 180°C and 4 MPa. Data obtained with the wollastinite mineral allowed for a comparison between natural resources and the industrial by-product materials, the latter typically being more reactive. With respect to temperature and pressure trends reported by others were largely confirmed, with temperatures above 150°C introducing thermodynamic limitations depending on CO2 pressure. The influence of additives showed some promise, although costs may make recycling and reuse of additives a necessity for a large-scale process. When using steelmaking slag, magnetic separation may remove some iron-containing material from the process (although this is far from perfect), while the addition of bicarbonate supported the removal of phosphorous, aside from improving calcium extraction. The experiments with paper bottom ash (PBA) gave new data, showing that its reactivity resembles that of steelmaking slag, while its composition results in relatively pure carbonate product. Also, with PBA no additives were needed to achieve this.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)110-119
Number of pages10
JournalFrontiers of Chemical Engineering in China
Issue number2
Publication statusPublished - Oct 2009
MoE publication typeA1 Journal article-refereed


  • Calcium carbonate
  • Industrial by-products
  • Mineralization


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