Bioactive glass ions induce efficient osteogenic differentiation of human adipose stem cells encapsulated in gellan gum and collagen type I hydrogels

Kaisa Vuornos, Miina Ojansivu, Janne T Koivisto, Heikki Häkkänen, Birhanu Belay, Toni Montonen, Heini Huhtala, Minna Kääriäinen, Leena Hupa, Minna Kellomäki, Jari Hyttinen, Janne A Ihalainen, Susanna Miettinen

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Due to unmet need for bone augmentation, our aim was to promote osteogenic differentiation of human adipose stem cells (hASCs) encapsulated in gellan gum (GG) or collagen type I (COL) hydrogels with bioactive glass (experimental glass 2-06 of composition [wt-%]: Na2O 12.1, K2O 14.0, CaO 19.8, P2O5 2.5, B2O3 1.6, SiO2 50.0) extract based osteogenic medium (BaG OM) for bone construct development. GG hydrogels were crosslinked with spermidine (GG-SPD) or BaG extract (GG-BaG).


Mechanical properties of cell-free GG-SPD, GG-BaG, and COL hydrogels were tested in osteogenic medium (OM) or BaG OM at 0, 14, and 21 d. Hydrogel embedded hASCs were cultured in OM or BaG OM for 3, 14, and 21 d, and analyzed for viability, cell number, osteogenic gene expression, osteocalcin production, and mineralization. Hydroxyapatite-stained GG-SPD samples were imaged with Optical Projection Tomography (OPT) and Selective Plane Illumination Microscopy (SPIM) in OM and BaG OM at 21 d. Furthermore, Raman spectroscopy was used to study the calcium phosphate (CaP) content of hASC-secreted ECM in GG-SPD, GG-BaG, and COL at 21 d in BaG OM.


The results showed viable rounded cells in GG whereas hASCs were elongated in COL. Importantly, BaG OM induced significantly higher cell number and higher osteogenic gene expression in COL. In both hydrogels, BaG OM induced strong mineralization confirmed as CaP by Raman spectroscopy and significantly improved mechanical properties. GG-BaG hydrogels rescued hASC mineralization in OM. OPT and SPIM showed homogeneous 3D cell distribution with strong mineralization in BaG OM. Also, strong osteocalcin production was visible in COL.


Overall, we showed efficacious osteogenesis of hASCs in 3D hydrogels with BaG OM with potential for bone-like grafts.

Original languageUndefined/Unknown
Pages (from-to)905–918
JournalMaterials Science and Engineering: C
Publication statusPublished - 2019
MoE publication typeA1 Journal article-refereed

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