A multivariate assessment of coastal eutrophication. Examples from the Gulf of Finland, northern Baltic Sea

C Lundberg, M Lonnroth, Mikael von Numers, Erik Bonsdorff

Research output: Contribution to journalArticleScientificpeer-review

40 Citations (Scopus)


The Gulf of Finland is the sub-basin of the Baltic Sea that is most seriously affected by the effects and consequences of eutrophication. In this study, physical, chemical and biological long-term data (1980-2002) from the Finnish environmental monitoring programme is used to detect possible gradients of eutrophication in the Gulf. The Finnish coastal area of the Gulf of Finland is divided into three parts in an east-west direction, and into three zones (inner, middle, Outer) according to differences in descriptive parameters. We use principal component analysis (PCA) to study spatial and temporal differences in relation to eutrophication. Clear differences between coastal and offshore areas are seen. Differences between eastern and western Gulf are not as evident. The changes due to eutrophication are larger for the inner archipelago, whereas the outer areas have been more stable over time. The concentration of oxygen is the strongest driving Factor for eutrophication in the region. (c) 2005 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Original languageUndefined/Unknown
Pages (from-to)1185–1196
Number of pages12
JournalMarine Pollution Bulletin
Issue number11
Publication statusPublished - 2005
MoE publication typeA1 Journal article-refereed


  • long-term trends
  • coastal areas
  • Gulf of Finland

Cite this