A low-cost paper-based inkjet-printed platform for electrochemical analyses

Anni Määttänen, Ulriika Vanamo, Petri Ihalainen, Petri Pulkkinen, Heikki Tenhu, Johan Bobacka, Jouko Peltonen

    Research output: Contribution to journalArticleScientificpeer-review

    144 Citations (Scopus)


    An electrode platform printed on a recyclable low-cost paper substrate was characterized using cyclic voltammetry. The working and counter electrodes were directly printed gold-stripes, while the reference electrode was a printed silver stripe onto which an AgCl layer was deposited electrochemically. The novel paper-based chips showed comparable performance to conventional electrochemical cells. Different types of electrode modifications were carried out to demonstrate that the printed electrodes behave similarly with conventional electrodes. Firstly, a self-assembled monolayer (SAM) of alkanethiols was successfully formed on the Au electrode surface. As a consequence, the peak currents were suppressed and no longer showed clear increase as a function of the scan rate. Such modified electrodes have potential in various sensor applications when terminally substituted thiols are used. Secondly, a polyaniline film was electropolymerized on the working electrode by cyclic voltammetry and used for potentiometric pH sensing. The calibration curve showed close to Nerstian response. Thirdly, a poly(3,4-ethylenedioxythiophene) (PEDOT) layer was electropolymerized both by galvanostatic and cyclic potential sweep method on the working electrode using two different dopants; Cl- to study ion-to-electron transduction on paper-Au/PEDOT system and glucose oxidase in order to fabricate a glucose biosensor. The planar paper-based electrochemical cell is a user-friendly platform that functions with low sample volume and allows the sample to be applied and changed by e.g. pipetting. Low unit cost is achieved with mask- and mesh-free inkjet-printing technology.
    Original languageUndefined/Unknown
    Pages (from-to)153–162
    Number of pages10
    JournalSensors and Actuators B: Chemical
    Publication statusPublished - 2013
    MoE publication typeA1 Journal article-refereed


    • Cyclic voltammetry
    • Electrochemical biosensor
    • Gold electrode
    • Inkjet printing
    • Low-cost paper chip

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