Cellulose derivatives have many potential applications in the field of biomaterials and composites, in addition to several ways of modification leading to them. Silanization in aqueous media is one of the most promising routes to create multipurpose and organic-inorganic hybrid materials. Silanization has been widely used for cellulosic and nano-structured celluloses, but was a problem so far if to be applied to the common cellulose derivative -dialdehyde cellulose- (DAC), i.e., highly periodate-oxidized celluloses. In this work, a straightforward silanization protocol for dialdehyde cellulose is proposed, which can be readily modified with (3-aminopropyl)triethoxysilane. After thermal treatment and freeze-drying, the resulting product showed condensation and cross-linking, which was studied with infrared spectroscopy and 13C and 29Si solid-state nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectroscopy. The cross-linking involves both links of the hydroxyl group of the oxidized cellulose with the silanol groups (Si-O-C) and imine-type bonds between the amino group and keto functions of the DAC (-HC=N-). The modification was achieved in aqueous medium under mild reaction conditions. Different treatments cause different levels of hydrolysis of the organosilane compound, which resulted in diverse condensed silica networks in the modified dialdehyde cellulose structure.