Intracellular Trafficking of Fluorescent Nanodiamonds and Regulation of Their Cellular Toxicity

A1 Journal article (refereed)

Internal Authors/Editors

Publication Details

List of Authors: Prabhakar N, Khan MH, Peurla M, Chang H, Hänninen PE, Rosenholm JM
Publisher: American Chemical Society
Publication year: 2017
Journal: ACS Omega
Volume number: 2
Issue number: 6
Start page: 2689
End page: 2693
ISSN: 2470-1343
eISSN: 2470-1343


In this paper, cellular management of fluorescent nanodiamonds (FNDs)
has been studied for better understanding in the design for potential
applications of FNDs in biomedicine. The FNDs have shown to be
photostable probes for bioimaging and thus are well-suited, for example,
long-term tracking purposes. The FNDs also exhibit good
biocompatibility and, in general, low toxicity for cell labeling. To
demonstrate the underlying mechanism of cells coping the low but
potentially toxic effects by nondegradable FNDs, we have studied their
temporal intracellular trafficking. The FNDs were observed to be
localized as distinct populations inside cells in early endosomes,
lysosomes, and in proximity to the plasma membrane. The localization of
FNDs in early endosomes suggests the internalization of FNDs, and
lysosomal localization, in turn, can be interpreted as a prestate for
exocytosis via lysosomal degradation pathway. The endocytosis and
exocytosis appear to be occurring simultaneously in our observations.
The mechanism of continuous endocytosis and exocytosis of FNDs could be
necessary for cells to maintain normal proliferation. Furthermore, 120 h
cell growth assay was performed to verify the long-term
biocompatibility of FNDs for cellular studies.

Last updated on 2019-24-04 at 03:18