Multi-factorial approach to early numeracy—The effects of cognitive skills, language factors and kindergarten attendance on early numeracy performance of South African first graders

A1 Journal article (refereed)

Internal Authors/Editors

Publication Details

List of Authors: Pirjo Aunio, Johan Korhonen, Lara Ragpot, Minna Törmänen, Riikka Mononen, Elizabeth Henning
Publisher: Elsevier Ltd
Publication year: 2019
Journal: International Journal of Educational Research
Volume number: 97
Start page: 65
End page: 76
ISSN: 0883-0355
eISSN: 1873-538X


The aim of the study was to investigate the influence of cognitive skills (executive function), language factors (listening comprehension, English as a second language, ESL) and kindergarten attendance on early numeracy in a cross-sectional sample of South African children (N=442) in the beginning of Grade 1. The mean age of children was 81.62 months (SD=5.40). Structural equation path models showed that kindergarten attendance predicted children’s early numeracy performance even when controlling for executive function and language skills. Listening comprehension skills predicted the early numeracy skills more strongly than did executive function skills. ESL was associated with weaker early numeracy performance.


early numeracy, English as a second language, Kindergarten attendance, Listening comprehension

Last updated on 2019-16-12 at 03:40