Regulating the Baltic Sea – A Showcase of Normative Pluralism

A1 Journal article (refereed)

Internal Authors/Editors

Publication Details

List of Authors: Viljam Engström
Publisher: Duncker & Humblot
Publication year: 2020
Journal: German Yearbook of International Law
Volume number: 61
Start page: 347
End page: 376
eISSN: 978-3-428-55801-8


The Baltic Sea Region (BSR) faces several challenges, not the least in respect of
the poor state of the sea itself. The regulatory framework governing the BSR is complex,
displaying a multi-layered structure with up to five regulatory levels. The regulatory scene is
also characterised by many features that could be assumed under the umbrella of post-national
rulemaking. This article discusses features of the pluralisation of BSR regulation. The BSR
regulatory framework is on the one hand rich with regulatory initiatives at the fringes of both
‘actorness’ and ‘ruleness’. On the other hand, the framework is characterised by crossfertilisation
between regulatory layers. Such interaction can add to the regulatory impact of
normatively soft acts, but can also come with drawbacks. In any case, the article claims, a
complete picture of BSR regulation can only be attained through an appreciation of normative


Baltic sea, European Union, International organizations


Last updated on 2020-01-06 at 03:00