Low intensity intimate partner aggression in Ghana: Support for the revised gender symmetry theory in an African country

A1 Journal article (refereed)

Internal Authors/Editors

Publication Details

List of Authors: George Darko, Kaj Björkqvist, Karin Österman
Publisher: Wiley
Publication year: 2019
Journal: Aggressive Behavior
Volume number: 45
Issue number: 1
Start page: 52
End page: 61
eISSN: 1098-2337


Sex differences in the perpetration and victimization of low intensity intimate partner aggression (IPA) were investigated in Ghana. The sample consisted of 1,204 adults (mean age 44.1 yrs., SD 13.5), 602 males and 602 females. IPA was measured with the DIAS‐Adult questionnaire, which measures perpetration and victimization of physical, indirect, nonverbal, cyber, and economic aggression in a relationship. Males scored higher than females on being victimized by their partner from physical, indirect, and nonverbal aggression, while females scored higher than males on being perpetrators of physical, indirect, nonverbal, and cyber aggression. A high educational level was positively associated with both perpetration and victimization of IPA. This is the second study to report men being more victimized by low intensity IPA than women in an African nation, thus finding support for Archer's (2018) revised gender symmetry theory of IPA not only in Western, but also in African countries.


Ghana, intimate partner aggression, low intensity aggression, revised gender symmetry theory

Last updated on 2020-23-02 at 06:11