Nanofibrillated cellulose originated from birch sawdust after sequential extractions: a promising polymeric material from waste to films

A1 Journal article (refereed)

Internal Authors/Editors

Publication Details

List of Authors: Jun Liu, Risto Korpinen, Kirsi S. Mikkonen, Stefan Willför, Chunlin Xu
Publisher: SPRINGER
Publication year: 2014
Journal: Cellulose
Journal acronym: CELLULOSE
Volume number: 21
Issue number: 4
Start page: 2587
End page: 2598
Number of pages: 12
ISSN: 0969-0239
eISSN: 1572-882X


The residual cellulose of wood processing waste, sawdust, which was leftover after sequential hot-water extraction processes to isolate hemicelluloses and lignin in a novel forest biorefinery concept, was explored as the starting material for preparation of a highly value-added polymeric material, nanofibrillated cellulose (NFC) also widely termed as cellulose nanofiber, which has provided an alternative efficient way to upgrade sawdust waste. The residual cellulose in sawdust was converted to a transparent NFC suspension in water through the 2,2,6,6-tetramethylpiperidine-1-oxyl radical/NaClO/NaBr oxidization approach. The resultant NFC with a dimension of ca. 5 nm in width and hundreds of nanometers in length were further processed into NFC films. The morphological features of the NFC suspension and its films were assessed by transmission electron microscopy and scanning electron microscopy. Highly even dispersion of NFC fibrils in the films originated from sawdust feasibly contributes to the outstanding mechanical performance of the films. NFC suspension with higher carboxylate content and its resultant NFC films were found to show higher transmission of light.


Biorefinery, Cellulose nanofiber, Nanofibrillated cellulose, Sawdust, TEMPO oxidization

Last updated on 2020-28-02 at 05:01