Cone Calorimeter Study of Inorganic Salts as Flame Retardants in Polyurethane Adhesive with Limestone Filler

A1 Journal article (refereed)

Internal Authors/Editors

Publication Details

List of Authors: Lindholm J, Brink A, Wilen CE, Hupa M
Publication year: 2012
Journal: Journal of Applied Polymer Science
Journal acronym: J APPL POLYM SCI
Volume number: 123
Issue number: 3
Start page: 1793
End page: 1800
Number of pages: 8
ISSN: 0021-8995


A cone calorimeter was used to test inorganic water-releasing and low-melting compounds as flame retardants in polyurethane adhesive samples. Sodium metasilicate pentahydrate, potassium carbonate mixed with silica gel, sodium hydrogen carbonate, calcium oxalate monohydrate, zinc and magnesium chloride mixed with potassium chloride, aluminium and magnesium hydroxides, ammonium polyphosphate (APP), sodium and potassium phosphates were tested. These additives were used to partially (10-20%) replace the limestone used as a filler in the adhesive. Thermo-gravimetric analysis was used to study decomposition and melting of the inorganic compounds. The results showed that sodium metasilicate monohydrate formed a protective layer of sodium silicate on the sample surface, significantly delaying the time to ignition. Addition of APP resulted in the lowest overall heat release rate curve.


cone calorimeter, fire testing, flame retardants, heat release rate, polyurethane adhesive, time to ignition

Last updated on 2020-28-01 at 07:03