Carboxymethylated spruce galactoglucomannans: preparation, characterisation, dispersion stability, water-in-oil emulsion stability, and sorption on cellulose surface

A1 Journal article (refereed)

Internal Authors/Editors

Publication Details

List of Authors: Chunlin Xu, Christer Eckerman, Annika Smeds, Markku Reunanen, Patrik C. Eklund, Rainer Sjöholm, and Stefan Willför
Publication year: 2011
Journal: Nordic Pulp and Paper Research Journal
Journal acronym: NORD PULP PAP RES J
Volume number: 26
Issue number: 2
Start page: 167
End page: 178
Number of pages: 12
ISSN: 0283-2631


In this study, carboxymethylated GGMs (CM-GGMs) were prepared and characterised by GC-MS, (1)H and (13)C NMR and FTIR spectroscopy, and SEC-MALLS. The thermal stability of the products was investigated by DSC-TGA. The accessibility of different C-positions in mannose and glucose was investigated. The emulsion stability of CM-GGMs in resin dispersion was studied and it was shown that CM-GGMs can stabilise the resin dispersion also in presence of CaCl(2). The possibility of using CM-GGMs as emulsifiers in water-in-oil emulsions was assessed. A CM-GGM with a DS value of 0.25 at a concentration higher than 3% performed the best. Finally, the study of sorption of CM-GGM onto cellulose surface exhibited a decrease in binding ability with an increase in the degree of substitution (DS).


Carboxymethylation, Cellulose surface, Emulsion stability, Sorption, Spruce, Structural features

Last updated on 2020-05-08 at 04:16