Effect of temperature gradient on composition and morphology of synthetic chlorine-containing biomass boiler deposits

A1 Journal article (refereed)

Internal Authors/Editors

Publication Details

List of Authors: Daniel Lindberg, Jonne Niemi, Markus Engblom, Patrik Yrjas, Tor Laurén, Mikko Hupa
Publication year: 2016
Journal: Fuel Processing Technology
Volume number: 141, Part 2
Start page: 285
End page: 298
eISSN: 1873-7188


A novel laboratory method has been developed to study the chemical and physical behavior of ash deposits in a temperature gradient. Experiments with synthetic alkali salt mixtures similar to biomass boiler deposits show that alkali chlorides evaporate from hotter particles in the deposit and condense on colder particles closer to the cooled metal surface or even condense on the metal surface. Formation of a partially or completely molten layer in the outer hotter region closer to the flue gas is also observed in the experiments.

The effect of time is shown to be significant for the enrichment of chlorides as longer experiment time leads to higher amounts of vaporization, transport and condensation within the deposits.

These effects are quantitatively verified using Computational Fluid Dynamics modeling.

The transport of alkali chloride vapors becomes negligible if the deposit and metal temperature is cold enough. An enrichment of alkali chlorides towards the cooled metal surface occurs and can increase chlorine-induced corrosion of superheaters as the deposits mature over time.

The experimental observations are similar to superheater deposit morphologies observed in biomass boilers, such as straw-fired grate boilers.


Alkali chloride induced corrosion, computational fluid dynamics, molten salt, Superheater corrosion

Last updated on 2020-23-01 at 03:00