Paper-based potentiometric ion sensors constructed on ink-jet printed gold electrodes

A1 Journal article (refereed)

Internal Authors/Editors

Publication Details

List of Authors: Pia Sjöberg, Anni Määttänen, Ulriika Vanamo, Marta Novell, Petri Ihalainen, Francisco J. Andrade, Johan Bobacka, Jouko Peltonen
Publication year: 2016
Journal: Sensors and Actuators B: Chemical
Volume number: 224
Start page: 325
End page: 332
ISSN: 0925-4005
eISSN: 1873-3077


Printed electrodes on a recyclable low-cost coated paper were used as a platform for constructing potentiometric ion sensors consisting of an ion-selective electrode (ISE) and a reference electrode (RE). The reference and working electrodes were printed by using a stable suspension of gold nanoparticles (AuNP) as the ink. Sintering turned the printed electrodes conductive. A poly(3,4-ethylenedioxythiophene) (PEDOT) layer, with poly(styrene sulfonate) (PSS) ions as counterions was deposited on the gold electrodes by electropolymerization, drop-casting or ink-jet printing. The reference electrode was prepared by further coating the PEDOT(PSS) layer with a poly(vinyl chloride) (PVC) membrane containing a lipophilic salt, tetrabutylammonium tetrabutylborate (TBA-TBB), thus resulting in a solid-contact reference electrode (SCRE). The working electrode was modified by coating the PEDOT(PSS) layer with a K+-selective membrane, to obtain a solid-contact K+-ISE. The electrochemical characteristics of the resulting electrode systems were studied by amperometric, potentiometric and electrochemical impedance spectroscopic (EIS) measurements. The potentiometric response toward K+ ions was additionally studied. The surface structure of the PEDOT(PSS) layers deposited by the different methods was studied with atomic force microscopic (AFM) measurements. It was shown that a well-functioning planar electrode platform with good electrochemical characteristics could be prepared by ink-jet printing in a repeatable manner. The planar electrode platform presented here offers a user-friendly and ecological alternative to perform chemical analysis from small sample volumes.


All-solid-state ion-selective electrode, coated paper, conducting polymer, Electrochemical sensors, Gold electrode, Gold nanoparticles, Inkjet printing

Last updated on 2020-05-08 at 07:57