Experimental investigation and thermodynamic re-assessment of the ternary copper-nickel-lead system

A1 Journal article (refereed)

Internal Authors/Editors

Publication Details

List of Authors: Fiseha Tesfaye, Iina Vaajamo, Joseph Hamuyuni, Daniel Lindberg, Pekka Taskinen, Leena Hupa
Publisher: Elsevier Ltd.
Publication year: 2018
Journal: Calphad
Volume number: 61
Start page: 148
End page: 156
eISSN: 1873-2984


Due to their high corrosion resistance and thermal stability, Cu-Ni-alloys have essential role in many materials
engineering applications. Lead is an alloying element in these alloys although it may also be considered as an
impurity in certain cases. In copper rich alloys, lead tends to diffuse into the grain boundaries and weaken the
hot-working properties. In addition to alloys design, accurate knowledge of phase relations and solubilities in the
ternary Cu-Ni-Pb system has important role in improving the copper and nickel smelting and refining processes.
In the present work, an isothermal equilibration technique was used to measure the mutual solubilities of
liquid lead and solid CuNi foil in the temperature range 1280–1530 K. The samples were equilibrated and an
Inductively Coupled Plasma Atomic Emission Spectrometer (ICP-AES) and an Electron Probe Micro Analyzer
(EPMA) were used to quantify the chemical composition of the phases. Selected solubility data obtained in this
work were combined with the literature data to obtain a thermodynamic description of the Cu-Ni-Pb ternary
liquid and fcc solid solution phases by applying the CALPHAD method. The ternary assessment agrees well with
the experimental observations in this work.


alloys, copper, High-temperature phases, Lead, nickel, Phase diagram, solubility


Last updated on 2020-26-09 at 03:30