Changes in Composition of Superheater Deposits due to Temperature Gradients

A4 Conference proceedings


Internal Authors/Editors


Publication Details

List of Authors: Daniel Lindberg, Jonne Niemi, Markus Engblom, Patrik Yrjas, Tor Laurén, Mikko Hupa
Editors: Stan Harding
Publication year: 2014
Publisher: EPRI
Book title: Proceedings: Impacts of Fuel Quality on Power Production


Abstract

Ash deposits on furnace walls and heat exchanger surfaces can show large internal variation in the chemical composition and physical properties. Part of the variations are due to the heterogeneous nature of the fuel but an additional factor may be the steep temperature gradient within the deposit giving rise to physicochemical changes in the deposit over time.
A novel laboratory method has been developed to study the chemical and physical behavior of ash deposits in a temperature gradient. The setup involves an air-cooled probe that is inserted into a tube furnace, where the probe temperature simulates superheater temperatures and the furnace temperature simulates the flue gas temperature close to the superheaters. Synthetic deposits are applied on probe rings made from superheater materials. Advanced electron microscopy is used to study the cross-section of the deposits and the corrosion layers in the superheater materials.
Experiments with synthetic alkali salt mixtures similar to biomass boiler deposits show that alkali chlorides evaporate from hotter particles in the deposit and condense on colder particles closer to the cooled metal surface or even condense on the metal surface. Formation of a partially or completely molten layer in the outer hotter region closer to the hot gas is also observed in the experiments.
The effect of time is shown to be significant for the enrichment of chlorides as longer experiment time leads to higher amounts of vaporization, transportation and condensation within the deposits. These effects are quantitatively verified using Computational Fluid Dynamics modeling. The transportation of alkali chloride vapors becomes negligible if the deposit and metal temperature is cold enough. An enrichment of alkali chlorides towards the cooled metal surface occurs and can increase chlorine-induced corrosion of superheaters as the deposits mature over time.
Ash deposits on furnace walls and heat exchanger surfaces can show large internal variation in the chemical composition and physical properties. Part of the variations are due to the heterogeneous nature of the fuel but an additional factor may be the steep temperature gradient within the deposit giving rise to physicochemical changes in the deposit over time.
A novel laboratory method has been developed to study the chemical and physical behavior of ash deposits in a temperature gradient. The setup involves an air-cooled probe that is inserted into a tube furnace, where the probe temperature simulates superheater temperatures and the furnace temperature simulates the flue gas temperature close to the superheaters. Synthetic deposits are applied on probe rings made from superheater materials. Advanced electron microscopy is used to study the cross-section of the deposits and the corrosion layers in the superheater materials.
Experiments with synthetic alkali salt mixtures similar to biomass boiler deposits show that alkali chlorides evaporate from hotter particles in the deposit and condense on colder particles closer to the cooled metal surface or even condense on the metal surface. Formation of a partially or completely molten layer in the outer hotter region closer to the hot gas is also observed in the experiments.
The effect of time is shown to be significant for the enrichment of chlorides as longer experiment time leads to higher amounts of vaporization, transportation and condensation within the deposits. These effects are quantitatively verified using Computational Fluid Dynamics modeling. The transportation of alkali chloride vapors becomes negligible if the deposit and metal temperature is cold enough. An enrichment of alkali chlorides towards the cooled metal surface occurs and can increase chlorine-induced corrosion of superheaters as the deposits mature over time.

Last updated on 2019-20-10 at 03:47