Design and Utilization of Nitrogen Containing Flame Retardants Based on N-Alkoxyamines, Azoalkanes and Related Compounds

A3 Book section, Chapters in research books

Internal Authors/Editors

Publication Details

List of Authors: Carl-Eric Wilén, Rudolf Pfaendner
Editors: Constantine D. Papaspyrides, Pantelis Kiliaris
Place: Amsterdam
Publication year: 2014
Publisher: Elsevier
Book title: Polymer Green Flame Retardants
Start page: 267
End page: 288
ISBN: 978-0-444-53808-6


The desire to reduce the load on the ecosystem has in recent years driven flame retardant research toward halogen-free systems or at least toward combinations that permit a substantial reduction in the percentage of halogenated substances. This review provides a comprehensive and chronological insight into some novel developments within the family of nitrogen-based flame retardants and their structure–property relationships. It focuses on a series of different N-alkoxy hindered amines (NOR), azoalkanes (AZO) of the general formula R′–Ndouble bond; length as m-dashN–R, and related compounds such as azoxy, hydrazone, azine, triazene, tetrapotassium azo diphosphonate (INAZO), and bis(1-alkoxy-2,2,6,6-tetramethylpiperidyl)-4-diazene compounds. These nitrogen-containing flame retardants mainly exhibit self-extinguishing properties for polypropylene and polyethylene films or even in some cases for polypropylene moldings, polyurethane adhesives, and polystyrene. In addition, their performance in combination with various conventional flame retardant classes is discussed. Contrary to other nitrogen-containing flame retardants, such as melamines, the presented nitrogen-based flame retardants are effective at very low additive levels (<1 wt%), they do not weaken the mechanical or physical properties of the host polymer, and after structural optimization, they are likely to meet the criteria for sustainable production and development.


Alkoxyamines, Azoalkanes, Nitrogen compounds

Last updated on 2020-08-04 at 05:21