On low-concentration inks formulated by nanocellulose assisted with gelatin methacrylate (GelMA) for 3D printing toward wound healing application

A1 Journal article (refereed)

Internal Authors/Editors

Publication Details

List of Authors: Wenyang Xu, Binbin Zhang Molino, Fang Cheng, Paul J. Molino, Zhilian Yue, Dandan Su, Xiaoju Wang, Stefan Willför, Chunlin Xu, Gordon G. Wallace
Publisher: American Chemical Society
Publication year: 2019
Journal: ACS Applied Materials and Interfaces
Journal acronym: ACS Appl. Mater. Interfaces
Volume number: 11
Issue number: 9
Start page: 8838
End page: 8848
eISSN: 1944-8252


Cellulose nanofibrils (CNFs) in the form of hydrogels stand out as a platform biomaterial in bioink formulation for 3D printing because of their low cytotoxicity and structural similarity to extracellular matrices. In the present study, 3D scaffolds were successfully printed with low-concentration inks formulated by 1 w/v % 2,2,6,6-tetramethylpiperidine-1-oxyl radical (TEMPO)-oxidized CNF with less than 1 w/v % gelatin methacrylate (GelMA). Quartz crystal microbalance with dissipation monitoring (QCM-D) measurements showed strong interaction between the two biopolymers. The UV cross-linking ability of GelMA (≤1 w/v %) was enhanced in the presence of TEMPO-oxidized CNFs. Multiple factors including strong physical interaction between CNF and GelMA, in situ cross-linking of CNF by Ca2+, and UV cross-linking of GelMA enabled successful 3D printing of low-concentration inks of CNF/GelMA into scaffolds possessing good structural stability. The mechanical strength of the scaffolds was tuned in the range of 2.5 to 5 kPa. The cell culture with 3T3 fibroblasts revealed noncytotoxic and biocompatible features for the formulated inks and printed scaffolds. More importantly, the incorporated GelMA in the CNF hydrogel promoted the proliferation of fibroblasts. The developed low-concentration CNF/GelMA formulations with a facile yet effective approach to fabricate scaffolds showed great potential in 3D printing for wound healing application.


Last updated on 2020-05-06 at 02:09